Banana (Musa species) is an essential fruit of tropics. This is the only tropical fruit which is exported in significant quantities.
The edible banana is thought to have originated in South-East Asia’s hot, tropical regions (Assam, Burma-Indo China region). The table banana (M. acuminata) has its origins in Malaysia, while the cooking banana (M. balbisiana) has its origins in southern India. Its cultivation is limited to areas between 30°N and 30°S of the equator and is found throughout the warmer countries.
The banana is one of humanity’s oldest fruits. Its origins can be traced back to the Garden of Eden, where Eve is said to have covered her modesty with its leaves. It’s possible that this is one of the reasons the banana is known as the “Apple of Paradise” and is botanically known as Musa paradisiaca. The banana is mentioned frequently in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, two great Indian epics.
Bananas were only recently introduced to Africa and the West. It was first brought to East Africa before the birth of Christ, and then spread through the continent’s tropical center to the West Coast. They arrived in the Mediterranean about the year 650. In the year A.D., Polynesian explorers took it to the Pacific around 1000 A.D. Arabs are thought to have brought the banana from India to Palestinian Egypt. The first voyage to the New World took place in 1516 A.D. The Portuguese brought it from the Canary Islands. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the Central American Islands produced the largest banana trade.
Banana is widely grown in many tropical and subtropical countries, including India, Mexico, the Philippines, Uganda, Tanzania, Thailand, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Burundi, Colombia, Brazil, and China. Venezuela, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Israel, Congo, South Africa, Bangladesh, Fiji, Hawaii, Indonesia, Taiwan, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Cuba, Panama, Jamaica, Indonesia, Costa Erica, Malaysia, Guatemala, West Indies, and Australia are among the countries represented.
India, Uganda, China, the Philippines, Ecuador, Brazil, Indonesia, Cameroon, Tanzania, Guatemala, Mexico, and Colombia are the world’s top banana producers. Bananas are produced in 145 million tonnes around the world. India ranks first in the world in banana production, accounting for 20% of global output. Other major banana producers include China, the Philippines, Ecuador, Brazil, and Indonesia, which account for 7.36, 6.3, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.2 percent of total production, respectively. Bananas are India’s second-largest fruit crop.
Bananas are a good source of vitamin A, a decent source of vitamin C, and a good source of vitamin B2 (Riboflavin). Bananas are high in minerals such as magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus, as well as calcium and iron. Water makes up 70% of a banana, carbohydrates make up 27%, crude fiber makes up 5%, fat makes up 0.3 percent, protein makes up 1.2 percent, potassium is 460 mg, magnesium is 36 mg, phosphorus is 27 mg, calcium is 7 mg, and ascorbic acid is 10 mg per 100 g of fruit.
Ripe fruits are delicious and are used in cooking. Both the plants and the fruits are widely used in weddings, festivals, and religious ceremonies in South India. Vegetables are made from immature fruits. After steaming, the fruits of some cultivars are used as a breakfast food. In Bengal, the end of the inflorescence, known technically as the pendant, is cooked as a vegetable. Bananas are used to make a variety of products, including banana chips, figs, soft drinks, flour, and jam. cv’s fruits Poovan is thought to be beneficial to diabetics, and the dried fruit acts as an antiscorbutic.
Banana ash is high in alkaline salts, which can help with stomach acidity, heartburn, and colic. Dysentery is said to be regulated by eating ripe fruits with tamarind and salt. Bananas are steamed, roasted, grilled, and fried in Uganda. In Africa, bananas are used to make beer. Banana flour is made from unripe bananas, while banana powder is made from ripe bananas. The pseudo-stem is used to make starch. Banana pseudo-stems of various varieties have been used to make paper boards. The banana leaf is used as a tray for serving meals in south India. To make crude cords, sheathes and leaves are used. Bananas are high in fiber.
Banana cultivars number in the hundreds and are found all over the world. The number is estimated to be over 300 in India. Edible bananas, or those that originated in the section Eumusa, have two wild species as progenitors, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, according to a recent global classification system. Simmonds and Shepherd used a scoring system to determine the relative contribution of the two wild species to a cultivar’s composition. They discovered 15 distinguishing characteristics between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana.
Each character was assigned a score of one of the varieties agreed with wild M.acuminata, a score of five if the variety agreed with wild Balbisiana, and intermediate expressions of the characters were assigned scores of 2, 3, or 4 based on their intensity.